Cosmodrome coordinates, degrees: 45,6 northern latitude; 63,3 eastern longitude, orbit inclination, degrees: minimum - 50; maximum - 99.
The Baikonur cosmodrome (official name - 5-th State Test Cosmodrome of the Russian Federation) is positioned in Kazakhstan, on the Syrdarya riverbank.
The cosmodrome construction started on January 12, 1955, when the first troop of military constructors arrived to the Tyura-Tam railway station. On May 5, 1957 acceptance act of the first launch complex was signed, and as early as on May 6, 1957 the first "R-7" missile was erected on the site.
The cosmodrome consists of nine launch complexes with fourteen launchers, thirty-four engineering complexes, three fuelling stations for space vehicles and two aerodromes. Such boosters as "PROTON-K"," ZENITH-2"," SOYUZ-U"," SOYUZ-U2"," MOLNIYA-M", "CYCLONE-2" and "ROKOT" are launched from here.
The famous "Launch pad № 2" or "Gagarin's start site" is located 30 km to the north from the town of Leninsk. The launch complex basement dimensions are: 250 У 100 meters with 45 meters depth. It was Baikonur, where people's enormous efforts were aimed at concreting the complex walls, supporting structures and gas passages, as well as at laying-out different service lines. This was a cradle of military and space Baikonur.
The complex of the "Energy - Buran" general-purpose space-rocket system is positioned in the center of the cosmodrome, close to the " Launch pad № 2 ". It was constructed on the position of the former "N-1" booster system. The complex is stretched out to the distance of 15 km along the main cosmodrome road.
The so-called "left-hand flank " of the cosmodrome is 70 km far from the "Energy - Buran" system complex, to the northwest side of Leninsk town. The launch and engineering facilities of the "Cyclone" and the"Proton" boosters are located there. The length of the "left-hand flank " is about 20 km.
The well-known "Proton" complex is situated at the closest to the town of Leninsk side of the "left-hand flank". Two launching sites with four launchers and two large assembly- and- test complexes, as well as a fuelling and neutralizing station are positioned here.
The "right-hand flank" of the cosmodrome is 50 km to the southeast from Leninsk. It is the area where the first "R-12" missile silo complexes were put into operation, the Yanghel Design Bureau missiles were tested, as well as nuclear explosion simulations were carried out. There are two launching complexes in the vicinity. The "Site №31 " for "R-7" missiles and "R-7"-type missiles is similar to the "Gagarin's start site", but two times smaller in size. It was put into operation in 1961.Several piloted space vehicles were launched from here, but basically it was used as a launch site for space vehicles, which were sent in the directions of the planets belonging to the Solar system. 330 launches were carried out from this site in total.
The other launch complex with two launchers is 10 km to the south and is intended for the "Zenith" system. The cryogenic center is situated nearby. Apart from the launch site the "Zenith" complex includes an assembly-and-test building, storage depots for launch and space vehicles, different engineering facilities and buildings.