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Practical Astrophysics


'Practical Astrophysics'

Third Year

  • Subject, Object and Problems of Astrophysics. Practical and Theoretical Astrophysics. Sources of Astrophysical Information. Reductions. Features of Astrophysical Observations. Experiment in Astrophysics. Multi-Wave Astrophysics. Practical, Scientific and World Outlooking Significance of Astrophysical Investigation.
  • Visual Telescope; Problems Which Are Solved with the Its Help. Angular Magnification. Range of Vision. Refractor and Reflector. Entrance and Exit Pupil of Telescope. Equi-Pupil Magnification.
  • Astrograph. Image Scale. Normal Distortion.
  • Resolution of Telescopes. Influence of Atmospheric Turbulence. Effectiveness of Telescope in Respect of Resolution. Effective Magnification. Resolution in Photographic Registration of Images.
  • Optical Power of Telescopes for Star-like and Extensive Objects. Boundary Magnitude. Reasons of Light Dissipation in Telescopes.
  • Aberration of Optical Systems - Chromatic, Spherical, Coma, Astigmatism, Curvature of Field, Distortion. Principles of Their Correction. Schmidt and Maksutov Systems.
  • Exploration of Optics. Fuco Method. Hartman Method. Astigmatism on the Axis. Circle of Confusion.
  • Various Types of Telescopes and Their Assembling. Telescopes Control. Coelostat. Horizontal and Tower Telescopes. Deffused Light in Telescopes and Scheme of Solar Lyot Coronograph.
  • Light Filters. Polaroids. Interference Filter. Interference-Polarization Filter.
  • Spectral Instruments in Astrophysics. Joining of Spectrograph and Telescope. Dispersion, Resolution and Optical Power of Prism and Lattice of Spectrographs. Spectrograph with echelette. Objective Prisma. Slitless Spectrograph. Spectrometer. Fourier-Spectroscopy.
  • Basic Photometrical Ideas, Magnitudes and Their Measurement. Flux. Luminous Intensity. Irradiance. Surface Brightness. Luminous Exitance. Albedo. Energy Distribution in Spectrum. Luminosity. Absolute Magnitude. Basic Formulas.
  • Eye as a Radiation Detector. Accomodation and Dark Adaptation. Vision Features under Normal and Little Illumination. Visibility Curve. Mechanical Equivalrnt of Light. Boundary Sensitivity of Eye and Its Quantum Yield. Contrasting Sensitivity of Eye.
  • Photoemulsion as a Light Receiver. Photografic Process. Granularity and Resolution of Photoemulsion. Quantium Yield. Significance of Exposure. Documentarity. Basis of Sensitometry. Photografic Image Density. Laws of Interchange, of Schwarzschild, of Kron. Astronomical Emulsions. Characteristic Curve. Gamma and Its Dependence on Development Conditions. Measure of Photoemulsion Sensitivity. Hypersensitization. Spectral Photoemulsion Sensitivity. Sensitization. Boundary Magnitude for Astrographs.
  • Photoelectric Radiation Detectors. Stoletov's Law. Einstein Equation. Quantum Yield of Photoeffect. Photoemission and Photoconductive Effect. Second Electron Emission. Photoelectric Cells and Photomultiplier Tubes. Electronic Image Detectors: Electron-optic Transformers, Television Systems, CCD-Arrays. Photoresistances. Front- and Back-Effect Photocells. Electron Telescope.
  • Thermal Radiation Detectors. Bolometer. Thermoelement. Radiometer. Pneumatic Detector.
  • Stars' Spectrums and Their Spectral Classification. Special Spectral Features.
  • Light Slackening in Earth Atmosphere and Methods of Its Registration. Effect Форбса. Night Sky Illumination.
  • Visual Astrophotometry - Some Principles and Approaches, Utilization Examples under Modern Conditions. Visual Estimations of Stars' Briteness and Other Star-Like Objects. Catalogues of Visual Magnitudes. Photometric System of Catalogue.
  • Photografic Photometry. Calibration and Standardization of Negatives. Microphotometers. Photometry Point and Extensive Objects. Photographic Photometry Errors, Standards, Catalogues. Equidensit Method.
  • Photoelectric Astrophotometry. Stellar Electrophotometer. Photons Counting. Reduction beyond Atmospheric Extinction under PE-Observation.
  • Colorimetry. Color Index. Photovisual System of Magnitudes. UBV System and Other Multicolored Magnitude Systems. Theoretical Definition of Magnitude and Color Index. Effective, Mean and Isophot Wave-length. Thermal Index.
  • Polarimetry. Polarimeter. Polarization Index Mettering Error.
  • Spectrophotometry. Absolute and Relative Spectrophotometric Measurements. Basic Laws of Thermal Radiation. Spectrobolometer. Photografic Spectrophotometry, Reductions. Important Amendments, Which Have to Be Inserted into SP-Measurements. Photometry of Spectral Lines and Errors Sources. Photoelectric Registration of Spectrums.
  • Methods of Stars' Temperature Determination. Conception of True, Brightness, Effective and Color Temperature. Gradation Temperature. Spectrophotometric Gradient. Scale of Stellar Temperatures. Temperature Determination by Colorimetry Datas.
  • Stars' Radiuses Determination. Estimations by Photometric Datas. Stellar Interferometer. Method of Stars' Covering by the Moon. Interferometer of Intensity. Conception of Speckle-Interpherometry.
  • Measurement of Stars' Radial Velocity. Doppler Efect. Wave-length Standard. Measurement of Spectrograms. Spectrocomparator. Reduction of Vr Measurement by the Earth and Sun Motion. Errors, Catalogues. Mass Vr Measurement with The Help of Objective Prism.
  • Featues of Extra-Atmospheric Observation. Utilization of Balloons, Rockets and Satellites. Great Space Missions. New Possibilities. Problems. Some Important Results.


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